Ingwer - Ginger
Ingwer - Ginger

The plant species known as ginger (Zingiber officinale), sometimes known as ginger and imber, and whose rhizome is also known as periwinkle and ginger root, belongs to the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). The primary underground stalk of ginger, known as the ginger rhizome (also known as ginger rhizome), is used as a spice or herb for health purposes; its scientific name is Zingiberis rhizoma.

Characteristics of vegetation

A perennial herbaceous plant called ginger can grow as tall as 50 to over 150 centimeters. The plant resembles a reed because of its sturdy stem and long stem leaves. As a means of survival, the rhizome develops into a branched structure with a golden interior and a strong aromatic scent. As adventitious roots, the roots grow along the rhizome.

Sessile stem leaves are more or less bifoliolate. Simple, parallel-veined, 15–30 cm long, and 2–2.5 cm wide leaf blades are present.


Gingerol’s structural formula is a strong aromatic compound.

Ginger has a flavor that is spicy and scorching to the palate. An essential oil, resin acids, neutral resin, and gingerol, an aromatic compound with a strong scent, make up the essential ingredients. Ginger’s pungency is caused by gingerol.

Additionally, zingiberene, zingiberol, shogaol, and diarylheptanoids are found in ginger. In addition, the ginger rhizome includes vitamin C, magnesium, iron, calcium, potassium, salt, and phosphorus. It also contains the digestive, stomachic, appetite, and circulation stimulating compounds borneol, cineol, and the pungent substances shogaol and zingerone.

But there are significant variations in the quality of the composition and concentration of the various ingredients, and consequently, in the flavor profile, depending on where the ginger comes from.

For instance, Nigerian ginger has a particularly high gingerol concentration, which accounts for its remarkable pungency. Indian ginger has a noticeable citrus scent and a significant proportion of limonene.

On the island of Madagascar, the blend of ginger essential oils creates a particularly mellow aroma and has a very high concentration of nutrients. Due to its rarity, ginger from Madagascar is preferred in the flavoring and cosmetics industries; for example, to flavor chocolates or skin care products.


The Middle High German word for ginger (ingewër) is derived from the Latin word gingiber or zingiber through Old High German gingibero and Old French gimgibre. This was afterwards appropriated from Middle Indian via Greek (zingiberis) (see Pali sigivera). The first component of these is a migrant word that can be found in practically all Southeast Asian languages without any indication of its origin (cf. Tamil inji, Sinhala inguru, Burmese gyin). A Dravidian term for “root” makes up the second element (see Tamil vr). Based on a subsequent reinterpretation, the term “horn root” is derived from Sanskrit “gavera” because of the object’s curved shape.

Distributing, growing, and harvesting

In the tropics and subtropics, ginger flourishes. It has historically been grown in places like India, Nigeria, China, Nepal, Indonesia, Thailand, Cameroon, Bangladesh, and several South American republics. The exact location of the ginger plant is unknown. It might have come from the Pacific islands or Sri Lanka. In the ninth century, the plant gained notoriety in the German-speaking world.

In the respective growing nations, commercial ginger is grown in occasionally enormous plantations. It is initially collected when a healthy eight months have passed during the growing phase. Although there are harvesting equipment for ginger, most of the time it is still grown and harvested by hand. The rhizome is still young and soft when ginger is harvested in its early stages, making it ideal for use in cooking as a fresh ingredient. The primary ginger harvest can start after another eight to ten months of growth, when the reed-like leaves start to turn yellow. Then it is powdered after being dried.

385,172 hectares were all under cultivation in the world in 2019. 4,081,374 tons of harvest were made in total. India is the biggest producer with an annual output of roughly 1.8 million tons and the highest cultivated area at 164,000 hectares. China is the biggest exporter.

Germany is now another country that grows ginger.

Use of Ginger

As a food source

The milder-tasting rhizomes that are taken when they are young are known as green ginger. The rhizomes are used as a spice and medicine, notably in South and East Asia, where they have been utilized for a long period (e.g. for coughs). Before the arrival of chili peppers from America at the dawn of the modern era, ginger was typically the only fiery spice accessible in East Asia except pepper. Ginger contains antibacterial and virostatic properties, is antiemetic (prevents vomiting), stimulates blood circulation, and boosts bile production. Rhizotomes are used to harvest the exceptionally thick ginger roots in Japan because they are highly prized as an aphrodisiac. Ginger can be made into a mild or hot spice depending on the technique of production, the season of harvest, and the manner of preparation. Ginger is sometimes offered as a pure plant beverage (ginger pressed juice).

Food chemists have discovered that ginger’s pungent gingerol-6 helps treat foul breath by promoting the salivary enzyme that breaks down sulfur compounds.


The ginger rhizome is used as a seasoning in food.

One of the more well-known culinary herbs and spices is ginger, which comes in fresh, dried, and ground forms. For instance, one can shred a piece of peeled ginger rhizome on a kitchen grater and add it to soups or even chicken flesh after it has been boiled or fried. Along with fish and seafood, it pairs well with poultry, lamb, and other meats. It can be used as a spice either alone or in mixes (curries, chutneys, jams, sauces). Ground ginger is also used to flavor gingerbread, gingerbread, rice pudding, fruit salad, tea, and cold fruity foods.


Fresh ginger pieces preserved in syrup are known as ginger plums or ginger nuts. Ginger jam, which is especially well-liked in Great Britain, and candied ginger (which is also covered in chocolate) are further sweet ginger preparations. In the tropics, young ginger sprouts are occasionally used as a highly hot vegetable or spice herb. Ginger that has been pickled in vinegar and is originally from Japan is frequently served as gari at sushi restaurants all around the world.


Ginger is frequently utilized in the culinary and beverage (ginger beer, ginger ale) industries. Ginger ale is a non-alcoholic lemonade with ginger flavor that was particularly well-liked in the middle of the 20th century. Ginger is a common addition to coffee or tea in hot areas because of its stimulant effects on perspiration. Pure ginger tea is also widely available.

Additionally, ginger—either the root or the rhizome – is utilized as a medicinal plant.